CS449/649 : Computer and Internet Forensics

Course Syllabus

Spring, 2019

(MW, 10:00-11:15; TBE B-178)


Prof. Hal Berghel; office: TBE B-378A; phone: 702-895-3681;

hlb \\acm// org

office hours: Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday - 11.30 am to 1.00 pm ( TBE-B346).

Graduate Assistant: Piyush Puranik



General notes:

  1. the Syllabus for this course will be maintained on the instructor's website at www.berghel.net.
  2. the assigned readings will come from online resources.  URLs for the readings will be listed in the syllabus under "reading assignments." Note that reading assignments are for the current syllabus entry (i.e., read the assignment for the next class ahead of class)
  3. Tests and presentations will be posted on this online syllabus at least 10 days before the date. Homework may be periodically assigned, the value of which will be clearly indicated on the assignment.
  4. The current UNLV policies that govern instruction are posted on the website of the The Office of the Executive Vice President and Provost at http://provost.unlv.edu/policies.html. Pay special attention to the semester memo under "S".
  5. In addition, please familiarize yourself with the following:
    1. Writing Center Statement
    2. Tutoring Availability
    3. UNLV Rebel email account (note: UNLV recommends that you use this in all UNLV email communication!)
    4. Most recent UNLV campus police report
  6. UNLV Institutional Metrics @ December, 2016
  7. For homework purposes, relevant published online or offline resources are acceptable references. Quotation according to the principles of "fair use" under the U.S. Copyright laws apply. i.e., quoting and identifying a source is acceptable, plagiarizing a source is not. Any student found to have plagiarized will receive an "F" for the assignment in the first occurrence, and will receive an "F" in the course on the second occurrence. If you have any questions about this policy, consult with the instructor.
  8. I change the syllabus frequently (sometimes daily) based on the feedback on, and pace of, the lectures. As a result, the syllabus will typically lead the lectures by at most 2-3 class periods. An exception to this will be the three class periods prior to an exam. In this case, the class content will be frozen well in advance so that you know what material will be covered on the test.
  9. Grading will be on a standard "university scale," i.e., 90-100=A; 80-89=B; etc. I curve the exams so that the mean is always at least 75%. The contribution of exams, homework, projects, etc. will vary but will be explained in the syllabus at the time of assignment.
  10. There will most likely be two in class exams and a final exam. Your grade will be based on these exams with the caveat in note 11., below.
  11. All Exams will be "closed everything": e.g., "closed book," "closed notes," PDAs and computers turned off, cell phones off, etc. Any student caught with an active mobile device during an exam will receive a grade of F for the exam. Any student caught with an active mobile device during an exam for a second time will receive a grade of F for the course.
  12. Attendance may be taken. More than three unexcused absences will result in a 5% penalty on your final grade)

  13. In addition to any exams, homework, and quizzes that may be assigned, students registering for CS648 will be required to complete a semester project the details of which must be agreed upon no later than class time, Monday, on the 4th week of term. You may submit a proposal via email or meet in person to discuss, as you choose.

    (As a general goal, assume 3,500 word report with complete references in whatever standard format you choose (Chicago, APA, MLA, etc. This report is due at the start of the final exam period.)

ACM Code of ethics:

Students must also agree to abide by the Association for Computing Machinery’s “Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct” for computing professionals (http://www.acm.org/about/code-of-ethics).

Course Description:

Basics of Computer Forensics and Internet Forensics. How to protect your privacy on the internet: E-mail, obfuscation, web sites and servers. Encryption, data hiding, and hostile code. Investigating Windows and Unix. Technical and legal issues regarding digital evidence collection and forensics analysis. Prerequisites: CS202 and junior standing. 3 credits.

Course Materials:

  1. Most reading assignments will either relate directly to the course notes/slides provided on this syllabus, or will be public domain material linked to this syllabus. In addition, you may find the following resources of value.
    1. SANS Resources
      1. SANS IPv4 TCP/IP and tcpdump Pocket Reference Guide
      2. SANS IPv6 TCP/IP and tcpdump Pocket Reference Guide
      3. SANS Netcat Cheat Sheet
      4. INterfacing with Law Enforcement
      5. SANS IT Code of Ethics
      6. SANS Malware FAQs
      7. Lenny Zeltser's Reverse Engineering Malware FAQs
      8. SANS 2008 Salary & Certification Survey
    2. Instructor's Notes
      1. Instructor's notes on Positional Number Systems and Boolean Algegra
      2. Instructor's notes on TCPdump commands and filters
      3. Instructor's study guide to selected reading assignments
    3. Instructor's Online Resources
      1. Better Than Nothing Security Practices
      2. The Packet Pal Primer (an Internet Protocol Resource)
      3. The CGI-Bin Bin (a guide to CGI programming circa 1996
      4. The World Wide Web Test Pattern (find out what the 1990's browser wars were about interactively)
    4. Instructor's TCP/IP Lecture Slides (CS448/648 & CS449/649)
      1. IP
      2. TCP/UDP
      3. ICMP
      4. DNS-ARP ip
      5. HTTP
      6. BGP
  2. Useful Online References:
    1. Wireshark References
      1. Wireshark Capture Filter Expressions: http://wiki.wireshark.org/CaptureFilters
      2. Wireshark Sample Captures: http://wiki.wireshark.org/SampleCaptures#ARP.2FRARP
    2. Forensics Papers
      1. Carrier, Brian and Eugene Spafford, "An Event-Based Digital Forensic Investigation Framework"
      2. Carrier, Brian: "Degining Digital Forensic Examination and Analysis Tools"
      3. Carrier, Brian: "Performing an Autopsy Examination on FFS and EXT2FS Partition Images"
    3. Manuals
      1. WinDump Manual
      2. Notes on TCPdump and Windump
      3. Snort Commands
      4. ASCII Table
      5. Packet Pal Primer
      6. Berghel/Hoelzer: Pernicious Ports, CACM, December, 2005
      7. SANS TCP/IP Guide (will be attached to relevant exams)
      8. Wireshark Display Filters
    4. Trusted-Source Network in Digital Security
      1. Schneier on Security - the most accurate security blog on the internet
      2. Krebs on Security - the best general-purpose security blog on the internet
    5. Watchlist of Future Threat Vectors
      1. Election Fraud and Digital Ballot Boxes:
        1. The Verified Voting Foundation
        2. The VVF's Principles for New Voting Systems
      2. The NSA ANT Catalog
      3. The DIY Ransomware software ad from the Isle of Man March 2, 2017
      4. CIA Tradecraft DOs and DONT's for Malware Development (text; src: Wikileaks; cf. esp. "(U) Networking" ). See also Helpful(?) coding tips from the CIA's school of hacks, Ars Technica, March 8, 2017
      5. The NSA's Media Engagement (aka: Deception) Plan
      6. Micah Lee, It's Impossible to Prove your Laptop hasn't been Hacked.....", The Interecept, April 28, 2018.
      7. Micah Lee, Edward Snowden's New App uses your smartphone to physically guard your laptop, The Intercept, December 27, 2017.
    6. Interesting Digital Archives
      1. IEEE Computer Society's Computing Conversations by Chuck Severance
      2. AT&Ts Tech Channel
      3. The IEEE Computer Society 2022 Report (predictions)
    7. Dan Kaminsky's Black Ops Series
      1. Dan Kaminsky: Black Ops of TCP IP 2008 (Defcon 16, 2008)
      2. Dan Kaminsky: Black Ops of TCP IP 2011 (Defcon 19, 2011)
      3. Dan Kaminsky: Black Ops of TCP IP 2013 (Defcon 20, 2012)
      4. Dan Kaminsky: Black Ops of PKI 2013 (26C3 January 3, 2012)
    8. Relevant Videos
      1. Whitfield Diffie: Information Security - Before and After Public-Key Cryptography; Computer Museum
      2. Warriors of the Net (video)
      3. Vint Cerf on the History of Packets(video)
      4. Vint Cerf on TCP/IP Evolution(video) - # 11
      5. The Cloud Conspiracy 2008-2014 by Calpar Bowden[31c3, Dec. 2014]
      6. NSA: Tell No One by James Bamford [31c3, Dec. 2014]
    9. Miscellaneous
      1. PRPL's: Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Computing, January, 2016
      2. Dylan Curran, Are you ready? Here is all the data Facebook and Google have on you, The Guardian, March 30, 2018
  • Recommended References: (although not required, these are standard references for computer and Internet forensics).
    1. Brian Carrier, File System Forensic Analysis, Addison-Wesley, Reading
    2. Charles Kozierok, TCP/IP Guide, NoStarch Press, San Francisco (2014)
    3. Sherri Davidoff and Jonathan Ham, Network Forensics: Tracking Hackers through Cyberspace, Prentice-Hall (2012)
    4. Laura Chappell, Wireshark Network Analysis: The Official Wireshark Certified Network Analyst Study Guide, Laura Chappell University (2010)
    5. Laura Chappell, Wireshark Network Analysis, 2nd ed., Chappell University (2012) [she has several good books on Wireshark, but this is the best IMHO]
    6. Charles and Shari Pfleeger, Security in Computing, Prentice Hall (2007)
    7. Gordon Fyodor Lyon, NMAP Network Scanning, Nmap Project (2009) (partially online @ nmap.org)
    8. John Vacca (ed.): Computer and Information Secutiy Handbook, Elsevier (2013) [a useful, encyclopedic approach]
    9. Dave Roberts, Internet Protocols Handbook, Coriolis Group (1996) [an oldie and a goodie - still a useful introduction to TCP/IP. If you can find this in a used bookstore for a few bucks, grab it - it's still a handy (if outdated) reference]

    Course Outcomes:

    By the end of the term, you will:

      Part I: Network Forensics

    1. Understand Core TCP/IP Protocols
      • Understand the operation of packet-based switching networks
      • Understand common network topologies
      • Understand the fundamentals of packet analysis in threat detection
      • Understand anomalous packet traffic and the role of RFCs in defining Internet Protocols
      • Understand the OSI and TCP/IP network models and their inter-relationship
      • Understand how ARP and DNS function
      • Understand the role of data fields and flags within TCP/IP packets
      • Understand the TCP 3-way handshake
    2. Understand the use of Packet Analysis and Packet Crafting in Digital Forensics
    3. Understand Common Threat Vectors
    4. Understand Common Mitigation Strategies
    5. Understand Anti-Forensics Strategies
      • Metasploit Project
      • anonymizing
      • onion routing and TOR
      • remailing
      • Understand Encryption

      Part II: Computer Forensics

    6. Understand Computer Forensics
    7. Understand the use of Digital Forensics in:

    Core Competencies

    1. An understanding the implications, remediation, and avoidance strategies of digital security breaches
    2. Situational awareness of the use of forensics by law enforcement, intelligence agencies, military, terrorists, criminals, and state sponsors.
    3. The ability to distringuish between types of digital forensics, and understand capabilities of each..
    4. You will develop a working knowledge of computer and network forensics and their tools
    5. You will be able to work within a digital security environment
    6. You will understand some of the digital/electronic/computing/networking technologies behind digital forensics


    note 1: Attendance may be taken. More than three unexcused absences may result in a 5% penalty on your final grade)

    note 2: The UNLV IEEE Xplore digital library institional license (ieeexplore.ieee.org from any UNLV IP address) and UNLV ACM digital library institutional subscription (dl.acm.org from any UNLV IP address) may be used to access IEEE and ACM assigned readings. In both cases use the title as the search term. Whenever possible, I will provide alternative convenient links consistent with copyright, but I cannot guarantee the persistence of the links..

    Weeks of January 21 & 28: Digital Forensics of Threat Vector I: Digital Crime

    1. Lecture Notes
    2. Reading Assignments
      1. Identity Theft and Financial Fraud: Some Strangeness in the Proportions, IEEE Computer, January, 2012 (IEEE Xplore)
      2. Equifax and the Latest Round of Identity Theft Roulette, IEEE Computer, December, 2017
      3. Fungible Credentials and Next-Generation Fraud, CACM, December, 2006 (ACM DL)
      4. The Future of Digital Money Laundering, IEEE Computer, August, 2014 (IEEE Xplore)
      5. What is More Dangerous -the Dark Web or the Deep State, IEEE Computer, June, 2017 (IEEE Xplore)

    Weeks of February 4 & 11: Digital Forensics of Threat Vectors II: Hacking

    1. Lecture Notes
    2. Reading Assignments
      1. On the Problem of (Cyber) Attribution, IEEE Computer, March, 2017
      2. Equifax and the Latest Round of Identity Theft Roulette, IEEE Computer, December, 2017
      3. Cyber Chutzpah: The Sony Hack and the Celebration of Hyperbole, IEEE Computer, December, 2017
      4. The SCDOR Hack: Great Security Theater in Five Stages, IEEE Computer, March, 2013 (IEEE Xplore)
      5. Vehicle Telematics: The Good, Bad, and Ugly, IEEE Computer, January, 2019 (IEEE Xplore-in press)

    Week of February 18 & 25: Threat Vectors with Digital Forensics Implications III: Cyberwarfare and Invasion of Privacy

    1. Lecture Notes
    2. Reading Assignments
      1. A Farewell to Air Gaps, Part 1, IEEE Computer, June, 2015
      2. A Farewell to Air Gaps, Part 2, IEEE Computer, July, 2015
      3. Mr. Snowden's Legacy, IEEE Computer, April, 2014.
    3. Homework #1 (not for grade: I'll work through this in class in a forthcoming lecture, but this exercise will be most useful if you work through this on your own in advance.

    Week of February 25 & March 4: Threat Vectors with Digital Forensics Implications IV: Phishing and Trolling

    1. Lecture Notes
    2. Reading Assignments
      1. Berghel/Carpinter/Jo: Phish Phactors: Offensive and Defensive Strategies , Advances in Computers, v. 70 (2007)
      2. An Online Trolling Ecosystem, IEEE Computer, August, 2018
        1. The iPad Steering Wheel Mount video
        2. The Dewalt DWARAFS Right Angle Flex Shaft Q&A
    3. Homework #2 and Homework #2 Datafile [for Grade: Submit by email to GA on or before 8 am March 11, 2019}
    March 13: EXAM I - Exam will cover all material assigned up to and including March 6. All Exams will be "closed everything": e.g., "closed book," "closed notes," PDAs and computers turned off, cell phones off, etc. The detection of any mobile device in use will result in an exam grade of F, the latest version of the study guide used in this exam will be 030619,

  • March 11 and the week of March 25: Protocol Analysis I: IP

    1. Lecture Notes
    2. answers to homework 1

    Week of April 1: Protocol Analysis I: TCP & UDP

    1. TCP & UDP Lecture Notes
    2. ICMP Lecture Notes

    Week of April 8: HTTP Protocol Analysis and Interactive Network Traffic Analysis with TCPdump

    1. HTTP Lecture Notes
    2. Interactive Network Forensics Demo: TCPdump

    Week of April 15: Interactive Network Traffic Analysis and Forensics with Wireshark

    1. Interactive Network Analysis Demo: Wireshark
    2. Interactive Network Forensics with Wireshark: Demo
      1. ARP Forensics
        1. Lecture Notes

    April 22: EXAM II

    Exam will cover all material assigned up to and including March 6. All Exams will be "closed everything": e.g., "closed book," "closed notes," PDAs and computers turned off, cell phones off, etc. The detection of any mobile device in use will result in an exam grade of F,

    April 24

  • Interactive Network Forensics with Wireshark: Demo (continued)
    1. IP-TCP-UDP Forensics (Scanning)
      1. Lecture Notes

    week of April 29 and May 6

    1. Stimulus-Response Theory
      1. Lecture Notes
    2. Computer and Media forensics
      1. reading assignments
        1. Data Hiding Tactics for Windows and Unix File Systems (Advances in Computers book chapter, 2008)
        2. Brap Forensics , CACM, 2008
      2. Lecture Notes

    week of May 8

    1. Computer and Media forensics (continued)
      1. Lecture Notes
    2. ABET Outcomes H response form (distributed in class)

    FINAL EXAM: May 13, 2019, Monday; 10:10 - 12:10

    (All Exams will be "closed everything": e.g., "closed book," "closed notes," PDAs and computers turned off, cell phones off, etc. Final Exam is cumulative and will cover all assigned course materials during the semester (except materials marked "supplementary")